Modalities are physical agents that exhibit a specific therapeutic response on the patient. They were used to provide an optimal environment for repairing injuries. Modalities need to be used under a physician’s advice as some of them may exhibit a contradictory effect on the patient. There are number of modalities used such as Ultrasound, Phonophoresis, Electrical Stimulation, Iontophoresis, Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, Electromagnets, Heat, Moist Heat, Cold, Trigger point therapy and Phototherapy. They were used to improve a patient’s condition to let them participate in other rehabilitation therapies.

  • Ultrasound
  • Phonophoresis
  • Iontophoresis
  • Light therapy
  • Heat and Cold

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